Tree, Poison Flat, Carson Iceberg Lake Tahoe to Mount Whitney: Your Backpacking Guide to the High Sierras Yellow Flower
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We Start
at the


Boot Forum


If you are following our backpacking conditioning program, you already breaking in a pair of boots.


If you are starting from Scratch, let's figure out what you need by determining basic selection standards.

Our training will introduce us to the character and needs of our feet. We need to match that with footwear.




Tahoe to Whitney Members' Favorite
Backpacking Boots



Backpacking Boots
  The Basics   Testing Boots  

"May you walk long, far,
through much Beauty with great pleasure..."

That's the Goal

Oh, my aching, bleeding feet...

Deciding on the style of Boot that suits your feet, your walking style, and your specific requirements within the terrain is vital for a lifetime of backpacking joy.

I have experienced foot problems. Plantar fasciitis, bunions, and structural problems with my foot bones and arches. I have also shattered a kneecap, lost a half-inch of one of the big piggies to frostbite, and broke a couple of ankle bones... I have recovered from all with rest, rehab, exercise, more rest, massage, therapy (careful work), more work, pain, rest, therapy again, work, and the proper footwear.


My point here is that plantar facitis or shin splints can drop us as quickly, or even more quickly, than a break.

Soft tissue problems in joints are more enduring than non-joint breaks. These problems require extensive and deep rest and recovery...

In every case of use or recovery we need proper footwear. What that is for you is unique. What I hope to do here is lay out the parameters various environments present, so you can figure out just what you need to properly confront yours.

Boots break down into three categories, being light, medium, and heavyweight. Each style is suited for a different use, and each is generally defined by its different use of a class of materials and approaches to construction style.

And different applications.


Basic Pieces
The sole touches the ground, our foot rests on the insole, and the upper is stitched and/or glued around our foot, to the sole.

Shank It
Between the sole and the insole is a stabilizer plate, made of either metal or plastic, located to add rigidity. It is called the "shank."

Balance of Factors
The type of materials, weight of the materials, and the construction techniques tying your various boot parts together determine which weight category a particular boot or trail shoe fits into.

Unique Shapes
Every boot line is manufactured for a generic foot type or shape, independent of its weight or manner of construction.

Thus the finest boot from one particular manufacturer may just not fit you. Or they may fit you perfectly.

Your Bottom Line
Your job is to make sure the boot you finally select is shaped and geared up to properly fit and support your foot.

Your Needs

Your particular application, type of foot, walking style, terrain, the weight load you are bearing, and your history are the critical factors in determining the proper footwear for you.

Long or short. Heavy or light. Season.

Type of Foot
High or low arch. Wide or narrow foot.

Walking style
Pro or super nator. Heavy walker (a tramper), a foot slapper, front or back biased.

Sharp rocks, unstable terrain & cross-country, "average" trail, or well-groomed.

Average pack weight.

Previous foot problems.

Bottom Line II
The goal is to protect the muscles, ligaments, tendons, and bones of your feet from bearing the stress of carrying weight in normal hiking conditions, as well as the many many times your feet will get out of position in relation to your load.

Problems, Problems, Problems
If you have bad arches, weak feet, or other structural foot issues, or you just want to avoid the pain and disability of damaged feet, then you must select footwear with adequate structural stability to protect your feet..

The Threat
Any footwear that does not provide proper foot support will eventually destroy your feet, and may fail to provide support when your really need support the most on the trail.

Boom! Down goes the backpacker...

For instance, when you roll your ankle over in a tight little drainage gully. This movement would normally be supported by a pair of medium-weight high top boots, but could possibly cause great pain and possibly even a sprained ankle in a pair of lightweight low-tops.

I cannot count the number of times I've rolled my ankle on the trail and been spared a sprain by proper boot support.

The long threat
It may take a hundred miles, a couple of seasons, or twenty years of continious hiking, but foot strain, pain, and damage is additive.

Don't expose your feet to the potential of long term damage or immediate injury by using inadequete footwear.

On the other hand, there is such a thing as overkill. If your pack is fairly light, you are crossing tame, well-groomed trails, and you do not have any particular previous foot problems there is no problem with light and low footwear, as long as it provides the necessary level of support.

The materials and construction used to build your footwear will determine how it will do on our stability and support flex tests.

Size & Shape

Every manufacturer deploys a different "shape," or number of shapes, to which they construct their boot's uppers. This shape is defined by the "Boot Last," which is the form to which the boot's upper dimensions are sewn.

That's why some boots fit perfectly, and others don't...

Danner Boot Lasts

Weights & Measures

Boot leather is measured by weight which translates into a thickness measurement.

Da Upper
Differences in thickness of one-piece leather uppers can distinguish between a medium and heavy weight boot.

But many light and medium weight boots do not use one piece uppers. Many light and medium boots have abandoned leather for fabric. They employ various pieces of both leather and fabric stitched together to form the upper.

Check these "composite" uppers carefully. Multi-piece uppers are inherently less stable than one-piece uppers. Many boots that appear to be medium-weight boots are actually light-weight boots, due to the lack of support provided by multi-piece fabric uppers.

Keep in mind that multi-piece leather uppers are less stable than one-piece uppers.

Rubber Sole
Independent of the weight of the leather upper is the stability and rigidity of the sole that the upper is attached to. This is determined by the shank, the piece of flat metal or plastic that adds rigidity to the sole.

I have had problems with plastic shanks splitting. A fine pair of ASOLO one-piece medium-weight boots suffered this fate. The sole itself split shortly after the shank split.

To add insult to injury, my apartment burned down, preventing me from returning the boots...

The Result
The combined support of the upper with the stability of the sole determines the true weight of the footwear, independent of the style of construction.

The only way to determine the support and stabiltiy level of trail footwear is to test it. See the next column for details of the flex tests.

But the range of "weights" of backpacking footwear is generally typified by a stlye of manufacturing.

Lightweights look like fancy heavy-duty tennis shoes, mediums look like light boots with multi-piece uppers, and heavyweight boots are your classic image of massive leather hiking boots.

The Lights
"Light" boots and hiking shoes span from those tennis-shoe type trail-runner shoes that are so popular now, to ultra-light boots employing light-weight multi-piece uppers.

Right now we are seeing many hybrids mixing the elements of the trail-runner shoes with design elements employed by light boots.

Lightweights are very popular.

The Mediums
The medium weight range of boots has also become a "fuzzy" range of weights and styles.

Many "medium boots" now top classic hiking soles and mid soles with very light multi-piece leather and fabric uppers.

If you don't watch out you can get less stabiltiy and support from a supposed pair of "medium" weight "boots" than a pair of high quality tennis-shoe style trail runners.

The Heavyweights
Your classic waffle-stompers. Heavy one piece upper. High tops with lots of support. Thick shank to provide stabiltiy for snow shoes and crampons. Thick wide soles with aggressive tread.



Rain Proof: From the tip of my pointy head, to the bottom of my flat feet.  

The quality that divides
Light, Medium, and Heavyweight Boots
is their level of structural support.


The Tests

There are two tests for structural support that I use to test all backpacking boots. Both tests require that you grasp the toe of the boot in one hand, and the heel of the boot in the other hand.

In the first flex test, you attempt to twist the boot's heel and toe in different directions. If the boot twists up like a pretzel, it is a pretzel, not a stable backpacking boot.

In the second flex test, you attempt to fold the heel and the toe of the boot towards each other. If the boot folds up like a lawn chair, it will make a better lawn chair than a backpacking boot.

When you are carrying a 50 lb pack and you are traversing a long, slanted slab you will be happy your boot passed test #1

When you are carrying a 50 lb pack and you wedge your foot between two rocks you will be really happy your boots passed test #2.

Multiply these stressful foot positions while carrying a heavy load by the number of out-of-balance or akward walking incidents you experience every day on the trail, multiplied by your number of days on the trail. Then multiply this number by the amount of years you plan on being on the trail.

This adds up to a lot of stress, and it does not even include the normal stresses that long distance backpacking puts on your feet.

Without adequate foot protection these stresses will build up cumulatively over the years, potentially causing both structural and soft tissue injuries.

Pick your boots for the long trail through life that your feet are already walking, not just the upcoming trip.



Boot Types
Note that I did not break down the boot's structural stability into the different types of construction that generally characterize different weight boots.

Typically, the tennis shoe style hiking shoe dominates the lightweight class. The medium weight class is characterized by the mixed material multipiece-upper boot, with or without fabric ventilation patches sewn in.
Boots designed with a thick one piece leather upper sitting on a rigid sole atop oversized tread are generally designated as heavyweight boots.


Subtle Distinctions
Classic medium weight boots with one piece uppers and rigid sole support are usually differentiated from heavyweight boots by the thickness of all parts. The mediums are constructed with lighter weight parts.

This means that the actual weights of the boots themselves rises significantly between classes.


It can be hard to choose between classes, as the classes have intermixed. The light and medium weight classes have become quite blurred in the last decade, both by mixing up the style elements as well as the levels of "flex" stability.


Pay Attention!
The result is that there are tennis shoe style trail runners that have excellent structural stability while at the same time there are medium weight boots that have very poor stability.


Brave New World
There is now a whole range of hybrid boot/trail shoes that are part trail runner, and part boot. Only careful testing and inspection will reveal the true weight class of the footwear.



Close Inspection
We really do have to flex test every boot, and carefully examine its upper design to understand the level of rigidity and support it will provide.

Note the construction details. How thick is the thread? Is it single or double stitched? How thick or thin is the leather?

If you shop the sales like I do, you will wait until the style of boot you need, heavy or light, comes on sale. But if the boot does not have good stability and support when you give it the flex tests, or the support provided by the upper is insufficient for your application it is not a good deal at any price.



Fitting the Boot
I shop for my boots with the gear I am going to employ in the boots. I "gear-up" my boots to customize them for my feet.

My standard set-up is a set of high arched inserts sitting on gel pads. If I am buying Winter boots, I bring a heavy pair of wool socks. For Summer boots I bring a medium or light sock.

We should try on all potential boots with the same insert set-up and socks that we will use on the trail.



Decision Points
The type of use is the determining factor for selecting boot weight. The weight of the load, the nature of the terrain, and the needs of our feet and your walking style will all influence our decision.

A real difference between Lightweights against the Mediums and Heavies is break-in time and pinch points.

Boot & Foot
The heavier the boot the more break-in time is required. This is not optional. It will be necessary to break in both the boots and your feet to the new pressure points your new boots put on your feet, prior to hitting the trail.

Eliminating Softness
It should also be noted that the new boots well never properly dig-in to, and begin hardening their new pressure-points on your feet until you are loaded as they will be loaded and used on the trail. Carrying a fifty pound pack while breaking in your boots shows you exactly where the problem areas are going to be, and gives you the time to fix them before departing.

That's information I prefer to find during training, long before hitting the long trails.


My first consideration selecting boots is always foot protection. Many quality "lightweights" have excellent sole support and pass the stability tests above with flying colors.

Yet their lightweight and generally low-topped uppers can significantly reduce foot and ankle support and protection in many circumstances where we are really going to want the upper to provide support and protection. Many lighweights also have low-tops, which I avoid because of the protection a high top gives against sprained ankles and endless rocks getting inside the shoes.

Therefore I suggest that lightweight boot or trail shoes should only be used by backpackers carrying a very light load on high quality trails. I also suggest high-tops for the extra ankle support and protection. Rocks slash at us and try to get into our shoes.

If we do employ trail-hiker style tennis shoes for long distance heavyweight backpacking, make sure they provide excellent stability and rigdity in the flex tests. Don't carry more weight than these lightweights can support when us and our feet get out of position.






Medium Weights
Most "medium" weight boots nowadays have multipiece uppers with fabric ventilation patches sewn in with the leather pieces. This style of construction reduces the support that the upper provides. This construction can bring what looks like a medium weight boot down to the level of a "lightweight" shoe.

The medium boots generally have more sole stability than a "lightweight," but that will only be determined by testing. I am constantly surprised by boots that present themselves as "medium" boots which have weak uppers and almost no sole rigidity.

A solid pair of medium weight boots is my standard selection for long distance backpacking carrying a very heavy pack. These boots will have a medium thickness one-piece leather upper.

Boot leather is measured by weight which translates into a thickness measurement. A medium leather is around 2 mm thick and weighs in at 5 to 5.5 oz.



I don't require a true heavyweight boot until Winter. An extra thick one-piece upper sitting on an ultra rigid sole easily handles the leverage of snow shoes and the concentration of stress directed by pointy crampons with reassuring, predictable stability.

A heavy leather is up to 2.4 mm thick and weighs in at 6 to 6.5 oz.



The advantage of most lightweights is that we can get excellent structural support from the sole and a low break-in period, all in a light weight package.

The disadvantages are that we may sacrifice sole and upper stability and support for a lighter weight.



  Rain Proof: From the tip of my pointy head, to the bottom of my flat feet.  
  snow shoes and poles, June 2010  
  Sept 2010 wound  
  Snow shoe  
  boot, June 2009  
  June 2010 wound  
  Jan 1 2007 to the boots!  
  June 9 2010 snow shoes  
  June 09 track  

An Excellent guide to Boot Construction

  Zamberlin mountain boots after snow trip  


2009's 955 Mile Boots

These light/medium Vasque boots did two Tahoe to Whitney trips, one in 2009 and the other one in 2001. I used a different very comfortable Asolo medium boot during the 2002 Tahoe to Whitney backpacking trip, but their internal sole piece split almost immediately after their first re-sole. Jeeze. I liked those fkers.

955 mile backpacking boots

This year, in addition to the 470 mile Tahoe to Whitney trip, these poor light/medium weight boots did 131 very wet early Spring miles at Lost Coast, and 181 miles in Fall between Meeks Bay and Tuolumne Meadows, as seen in the action photo above. I entertained the thought that I might finish that hike on my fording/camping tennis shoes.

Between trips I sealed up all the cracks and splits in the boot with that nasty fix-all, Shoe Goo.

Love that Stuff...


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